Spanish parliament building. Madrid

Administrative Organs

Since 1978 Spain has been a democracy whose highest representation is the Spanish Crown. The nation's three powers, the executive, legislative and judicial, are based on key institutions with very specific functions.

The Spanish Constitution is the fundamental standard of the political organisation of the Spanish nation. Passed by the Spaniards in a referendum on 6 December 1978, it came into effect on 29 December of the same year. Spain is constituted as a democracy, in which the supreme values of its legal system are the concepts of freedom, justice, equality and political pluralism. The Constitution is the result of consensus between all the political forces who created it. The Carta Magna incorporates a series of basic rights and public freedoms belonging to all its citizens, the safeguarding and protection of which are effectively guaranteed by the ordinary courts, or by appeal to the Constitutional Court. The Spanish political system thereby ceased to be sustained on the exceptional powers attributed theretofore to Francisco Franco, and became a parliamentary monarchy in which sovereignty resides in the people. The Spanish Crown is the maximum institution, held by the King, who is at the same time Head of State. The King arbitrates and moderates the regular functioning of the institutions, assumes the highest representation of the Spanish state in international relations, and exercises the functions attributed to him by the Constitution and the Law. The Constitution establishes the principle of the separation of the powers of the state into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. The legislative power is in the hands of the parliament, which also exercises control over the actions of the government (executive power) and approves the national budget. It consists of two chambers: the parliament and the senate. The head of the government is proposed by the King and elected after the renewal of parliament. The Constitutional Court is responsible for safeguarding the constitutionality of the laws and for resolving any conflicts arising between the Autonomous Regions and the state. The 1978 Constitution marked the break with a centralised model of territorial organisation, and in only 20 years this has led to an ongoing and significant transfer of powers from the central government to the Autonomous Regions, making Spain one of the most decentralised countries in Europe. This new configuration of the state has meant that Spaniards have had to find their own unique formula for safeguarding our national unity, creating a channel to enable all aspects of our political, social and cultural diversity that enriches our history to develop side by side in harmony. The territory is divided into provinces, and into other larger units –the Autonomous Regions–, each with a series of areas of competence which vary from one region to another. There are currently 17 Autonomous Regions: Andalusia, Aragon, Asturias, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Cantabria, Castile and León, Castile-La Mancha, Catalonia, Extremadura, Galicia, Madrid, Murcia, Navarre, Basque Country, La Rioja and Valencia. There are also two cities –Ceuta and Melilla– with the Statute of Autonomy. The fundamental elements in the organisation of the Autonomous Regions are the parliament and the regional government. In addition to the state and the regional governments, the third public administration with autonomy for managing its own interests as established in the Constitution is the local government. There are currently in Spain 50 provinces and 8,116 municipal districts. The Spanish Constitution establishes that the political parties are the expression of political pluralism, combine to shape and manifest the will of the people, and are the fundamental instrument for political participation. The Spanish Constitution also recognises and guarantees the right to the freedom of trade unions and freedom to affiliate to a trade union, the right to collective bargaining between representatives of the workers and employers, and the right of workers to strike in defence of their interests in the trade union organisation. In Spain the main trade union organisations are the Unión General de Trabajadores (General Union of Workers), the Confederación Sindical de Comisiones Obreras (Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Committees) and la Unión Sindical Obrera (Workers’ Trade Union).

Spain 바르셀로나세비야마드리드말라가코르도바아 코루냐그라나다카디스발렌시아우에스카예이다루고무르시아알리칸테폰테베드라카스테욘라 리오하기푸스코아비스카야칸타브리아아스투리아스카세레스하엔부르고스톨레도지로나레온타라고나아라바-알라바우엘바세고비아바야돌리드알메리아사라고사테루엘아빌라살라망카나바라시우다드 레알사모라바다호스쿠엥카오렌세팔렌시아과달라하라소리아알바세테카나리아 제도발레아레스
Baleares 마요르카이비사메노르카포르멘테라
Canarias 란사로테라 팔마테네리페그란 카나리아푸에르테벤투라라 고메라엘 이에로